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Syllabus-RF2016-02-27T06:36:16+00:00

RF and Microwave Course Syllabus

[mpc_accordion preset=”preset_0″ auto_close=”true” auto_indent=”” opened=”1″ title_font_preset=”preset_0″ title_font_color=”#ffffff” title_font_transform=”capitalize” title_font_align=”center” title_background_color=”#6d9bdb” title_border_divider=”true” title_border_css=”border-top:0px;border-right:0px;border-bottom:1px;border-left:0px;border-color:#ffffff;border-style:solid;border-radius:0px;” title_padding_divider=”true” title_padding_css=”padding-top:6px;padding-right:0px;padding-bottom:6px;padding-left:10px;” title_margin_divider=”true” title_margin_css=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;” hover_title_color=”#000000″ hover_title_background_color=”#aaceef” content_font_preset=”preset_1″ content_background_color=”#f7f7f7″ content_border_css=”border-width:0px;border-color:#b5b5b5;” content_padding_css=”padding:0px;” content_margin_css=”margin:0px;” border_divider=”true” border_css=”border-top:0px;border-right:0px;border-bottom:4px;border-left:0px;border-color:#6e87ad;border-style:solid;border-radius:0px;” margin_divider=”true” margin_css=”margin-top:0px;margin-right:0px;margin-bottom:0px;margin-left:0px;” hover_border=”#555555″ mpc_icon__icon=”fa fa-chevron-circle-down” mpc_icon__icon_color=”#ffffff” mpc_icon__background_color=”#4c4c4c” mpc_icon__hover_icon=”fa fa-chevron-circle-up” mpc_icon__hover_background_color=”#df5461″][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Introduction to RF and Microwaves”]
  • Spectrum of RF and Microwave Frequencies
  • Frequency bands and Regions of Spectrum Allocations
  • Time and Frequency Domains
  • Fourier series and Fourier Transform
  • Modulation (Heterodyning) and Frequency-Shifting
  • The Decibel for Power Ratios
  • Summation of Voltages and Mean Power
  • Representation of Power-Voltages  dBm, dBW, dBµV/m
  • Motivation for Wireless (Radio) communication
  • Modeling Lumped and Distributed Components at Radio Frequencies
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Noise in Communication Systems”]
  • Introduction
  • Classification of Noises and Thermal Noise
  • Power Spectral Density of Noise
  • Band-Limited Noise, Amplitude and Phase Noise
  • Noise Factor and Noise Figure
  • Matching the Noise Figure to Input Noise Level
  • Noise Temperature
  • The Notion of Excess Noise
  • Noise Factor of an Attenuator, Divider, Combiner
  • Noise Factor of a Cascade
  • Sensitivity
  • Noise and Sensitivity of a Receiving RF Chain Cascade
  • Measurement Methods of Noise Factor
  • Noise and Sensitivity Performance with Antennas, G/T
  • Design-Rules for minimizing System Noise
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Non-Linearity Phenomenon”]
  • Introduction and Non-Linearity Phenomenon
  • Spurious Signals
  • One-dB Compression Point
  • AM/AM and AM/PM below and into Compression
  • Representing a Memoryless Response by a Power Series
  • Harmonic Stimulus: Single and Tow-Tones – Intermodulation
  • In-Band and Harmonics Spectrum
  • 2nd and 3rd Order Intercept Points
  • Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (3rd Order IM’s) SFDR3
  • Characterizing Non-Linearity of a Cascade of Blocks
  • Measuring Non-Linearity
  • Design-Rules for minimizing System Non-Linearity
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Performance Optimization of RF Chains”]
  • Review Design Rules for optimizing System Noise and Non-Linearity
  • Conflicts in the Rules and the need to Compromise
  • Fixed-Gain System Design
  • “Head-Room” based Design
  • Variable-Gain System Design (AGC)
  • Design for a Tx-Chain and an Rx-Chain
  • Demonstration of a Design via an Excel Example
  • Software-Defined Radio – The RF FE and the ADC
  • Demonstration an Optimization for SDR
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Propagation of EM Waves”]
  • EM Waves
  • The Atmosphere and Classification of its Layers
  • Characteristics of the Wireless Path (Channel)
  • Free-Space Propagation of Waves – Friis Equation
  • Link Budget and Free-Space Path Losses
  • Effective Isotropic Radiated Power – EIRP
  • Line-of-Sight (LOS) above Earth
  • Path Loss for Communications over the Horizon
  • Propagation in Urban Regions – HATA Models
  • Log-Normal Shadowing and Shaow-Margin (Numerical Example)
  • Indoors Communications – Measurements and a Computational Model
  • Waves Propagation over Flat Earth
  • Point-to-Point Communications with an Obstacle – Diffraction (Fresnel)
  • Rayleigh (fast) Fading and Fade-Margin
  • Doppler Effect
  • Scattering and Reflection (Radar Cross Section – RCS)
  • Ground-wave Propagation (Ranges vs. Frequencies)
  • Sky Waves, Day/Night Frequencies
  • Microwave Links, Ray Bending in Atmospheric Propagation
  • Ducts, Tropospheric Propagation
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Transmission Lines and Distributed Systems”]
  • Introduction to Transmission Lines and Familiar Examples
  • Lumped and Distributed Systems
  • The Telegraph Equations and the Waves Solution
  • The Wave Equation – Forward and Reverse Waves
  • Characteristic Impedance and Propagation Velocity
  • The Load (Relative to Zo) Effect on the Reflected Wave
  • Types of Transmission Lines (Coaxial, Conductor-Pair, Printed – Microstrip, Stripline)
  • Standing-Wave in a Transmission-Line
  • Reflection Coefficient and Voltage-Standing-Wave-Ratio (VSWR)
  • Efficiency of Power-Transfer
  • Terminations (Source and Load) of Transmission Lines
  • Short, Open, and Matched Loads’ Impedance as viewed at the end of a Variable-Length Transmission Line
  • Reflection Parameters
  • Transmission Parameters
  • Wave representation of Two-Port and the S-Parameters
  • Phase Velocity
  • Group Velocity
  • Dispersion
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”The Smith Chart and Load Matching”]
  • Smith Chart – Impedance on the reflection plane
  • Review of Transmission Lines and normalized impedances (by Z0)
  • Display of Smith Chart – Constant Resistance and Reactance Circles
  • Presenting Admittance in the Smith Chart
  • Numerical Examples
  • Fixed SWR Circles
  • Finding the Impedance seen into a Loaded Reactive Circuit
  • Impedance Matching – L, Π, T, Sections, Transmission Lines and Stubs
  • Bandwidth of Matching Networks
  • Quarter Wavelength Transformer
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Transmit and Receive Architectures”]
  • Heterodyne and Super-Heterodyne Receiver
  • Intermediate Frequencies, Image Frequency, Heterodyning with/without Spectral Mirroring
  • Input Band Filtering of Interference and Noise at Image Frequency
  • An Example of an FM Receiver
  • Transmission and Reception via Direct Conversion – In-Phase and Quadrature (I-Q) Mixing
  • Design Considerations for an RFIC transceiver
  • Software Defined Radio (SDR)
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Spectral Analysis”]
  • Signals in time and Frequency Domain
  • Types of Spectrum Analyzers
  • Basic Block Diagram of an Analog SA
  • The SA as a Receiver
  • Selectivity, AGC, LO Phase Noise
  • Microwaves Spectrum Analyzer
  • Frequency Resolution and RBW
  • Limitations on the Sweep Rate
  • RF Attenuator
  • IF Amplification
  • Shape Factor of the RBW Filter and Sweep Rate
  • Noise Floor
  • Video Signal Filtering (Post-Detection)
  • Filtering by Averaging Screens
  • SA Controls (Span, RBW, Att, VBW)
  • Dynamic Range
  • Detector Types and their Characteristics
  • Sampling and the Sampling Theorem
  • Spectrum of a Uniformly Sampled Signal
  • Artifacts in Digitally Processed Spectrum Display
  • Side-Lobes in Frequency Domain and Windowing
  • RBW broadening by Windowing
  • 2nd and 3rd Order Distortions and Spurii – Identification of Saturation in the SA
  • Effect of LO Phase Noise
  • Residual FM
  • Time Domain Measurements – Zero Span
  • Signal Power response in time
  • Intermodulation Measurements
  • Intermodulation with two-tones Stimulus
  • Adjacent channel power (ACP)
  • Adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR)
  • Tracking Generator Configuration and Scalar Network Analyzer Measurements
  • Demonstration of SA operation and Measurements
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”RF and Microwave Passive Devices”]
  • Active and Passive Devices
  • Active: Amplifiers, Frequency Sources, Mixers, Antennas
  • Passive: Filters, Duplexers/Multiplexers, Antennas, Mixers, Couplers, Dividers/Combiners
  • Power Dividers and Combiners – Coherent, Incoherent and Partial Summation
  • Isolators and Circulators
  • Phase Shifter
  • Attenuators, T and Π Pads
  • Cables and Coaxial Connectors
  • Switches
  • S Parameters of Passives (Unitary Property for Lossless Passives)
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Mixers”]
  • What’s a Mixer?
  • Frequency Shifting – Up- and Down-Conversion
  • Simple Diode Mixer
  • Double Balanced Mixer
  • Performance Parameters of a Mixer
  • Isolation
  • 1 dB Compression
  • VSWR
  • Conversion Loss
  • I/Q Mixer Imbalance
  • Effect of Imbalance on EVM
  • Sub-Harmonic Mixing
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Filters”]
  • Characterizing Filters
  • Bandwidth
  • Quality Factor
  • Passband Insertion Loss
  • Ripple
  • Group Delay and GDV
  • Shape Factor
  • Prototype Normalized Response
  • Chebyshev Filter
  • Butterworth Filter
  • Bessel Filter
  • Eliptic Filter
  • Determining the Filter Order
  • Implementation Examples: Lumped Case
  • Implementation Examples: Printed Case
  • Additional Implementation Technologies: Resonators, YIG, Coaxial, Dielectric
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Frequency Sources and Synthesizers”]
  • Objectives and uses of Frequency/Clock Sources
  • Classical Oscillators, Quartz and SAW Oscillators
  • Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCOs)
  • YIG Oscillators
  • PLL Based Synthesizer
  • Basic PLL
  • Basics of a PLL Synthesizer
  • Analog PLL Synthesizer
  • Multi-Loop Synthesizer
  • Digital Synthesizer – Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS)
  • Phase Noise
  • Phase noise of a Crystal Source, of a VCO
  • Phase Noise in a PLL Synthesizer
  • Calculating Jitter from Phase-Noise Measurements
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Vector Network Analyzer”]
  • Introduction to the Network Analyzer
  • Measurement Types Performed by the VNA
  • Scalar and Vector Network Analysis
  • Review of Transmission Lines
  • Transmission and Reflection Parameters
  • S parameters
  • Construction of the VNA
  • Coupling to the Measured Signals
  • Detection Types
  • Dynamic Range
  • T/R Setup versus S-Parameters Measurements
  • Types of Measurements Errors
  • Basic Error Models and Calibration
  • One-Port and Two-Port Models
  • Review of Calibration Methodologies for Minimization of Errors
  • Measurements Review – Power Sweep for AM/AM, AM/PM, and Harmonics
  • Time Domain Measurements (TDR)
  • Demonstration of VNA operation and Measurements
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Digital Modulations”]
Introduction/basic concepts
  • Digital Communication System
  • Coding Rate
  • Eb/No – The Normalized SNR
  • Digital Modulation Types
  • Digital Modulation Signals
  • Received Complex Envelope
  • Digital Modulator
Digital Modulation with Single Waveform (QAM)
  • PSK-Phase Shift Keying
  • ASK-Amplitude Shift Keying (PAM)
  • QAM (square grid) -Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
  • APSK
  • Variations of QAM
  • Receiver for Single Waveform Modulation
  • Matched Filter, Correlator, Nyquist Theorem
  • QAM performances: Waveforms, Spectrum, BW, Probability of error
Digital Modulation with M Orthogonal Waveforms-M-OK
  • Pulse Position Modulation-PPM
  • Walsh Hadamard
  • MFSK
  • Transmitter
  • Coherent/Non Coherent Receiver for M-OK
  • Performances: BW and Probability of error
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Multiple Access Methods”]
Introduction
  • Resource Allocation
  • Duplexing
  • Multiplexing
  • Multiple Access
Time Division
Frequency Division
Code Division
  • Frequency Hopping
  • DS Modulation
Random Access
Applications and design considerations
  • Frequency Division Duplexing – FDD/Time Division Duplexing – TDD
  • CDMA vs. Time division and Frequency Division
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”OFDM, OFDMA”]
Multi-Carrier methods
  • Orthogonality concept
  • Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing – OFDM
  • Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access – OFDMA
  • Transmitter / Receiver implementation
OFDM characteristic
  • Cyclic prefix
  • OFDM Waveforms
  • OFDM Spectrum
Design Considerations and Applications
  • Multicarrier Technology Advantages
  • Fast Scheduling and Link Adaptation
  • Throughput Maximization by Adaptive Transmission
  • Implementation in LTE
PAPR – peak-to-average power ratio PAPR Mitigation Techniques
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Antennas”]
  • The Role of the Antenna
  • Review of EM Waves in Space and Matching in Transmission Lines
  • The Antenna Characteristics
  • Frequency Range
  • Antenna Directivity and Gain
  • Antenna Pattern
  • Polar Pattern Display
  • Cartesian Pattern Display
  • Beamwidth
  • Main Lobe and Side-Lobes
  • Front-to-Back Ratio
  • Antenna Aperture
  • Polarization of EM Waves
  • Polarization Types: Linear (Vertical, Horizontal) Circular
  • Far-Field Range
  • High-Level Review of Basic Antennas
  • Half-Wave Dipole
  • Dipole over a Back-screen
  • Corner Reflector
  • Ground Plane and the Monopole
  • Slot Antennas
  • Long-Wire Antennas
  • Loop Antennas
  • Helix Antenna
  • Yagi Antenna
  • Broadband Antennas (Logarithmic, Spiral)
  • Horn Antenna
  • Printed Antennas
  • Microstrip Antenna
  • Fractal Antennas
  • Short Backfire Antenna
  • Antenna Arrays
  • Phased Arrays
  • Adaptive Arrays
  • Parabolic Reflector Antenna
  • Converting Balanced and Unbalanced Lines (Baluns)
  • Radomes
  • DAS – Distributed Antenna Systems
  • Antenna Measurements
  • (Far and Near-Field Measurements)
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”RF and MW Design with Simulation Software-CST”]
  • Introduction & Built-In Help
  • Basic Modeling
  • CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Solver Overview
  • Ports, Materials & Boundary Conditions
  • Result Handling & Template-based Postprocessing
  • Optimizer Overview
  • Workflow Example 1: Microstrip – Quarter-wave Transformer
  • Workflow Example 2: Printed LPF filter
  • Homework: Wilkinson Power Divider
[/mpc_accordion_tab][mpc_accordion_tab title=”Demonstration and Hand-on of Practical Measurements”]
Spectrum Analyzer (SA) – Measurements Demo
  • Parameters and Measurement types of the SA
  • Resolution and Video Bandwidth
  • Attenuation and Scaling
  • Channel Power
  • Adjacent Channel Power
  • Sensitivity and Noise Floor: Dependence on RBW, ATT, Improvement with LNA
  • WCDMA signal Peak-to-Average Power (PAR) Measurements
  • Time-Domain Measurements on Zero Span of a Pulsed Periodic Signal
  • Demo of Heterodyning – Sum and Difference Frequencies, and Leakages
Vector Network Analyzer (VNA)– Measurements Demo
  • Setting Up and Calibrating the VNA
  • S11 of an Antenna
  • S11 of a Variable length Loaded Transmission Line
  • Power Sweep Measurements of an Amplifier and Displaying AM/AM, AM/PM and Harmonics
  • Filter Response including Amplitude, Phase and GDV
  • Response of a Differentiator
Vector Signal Analyzer (VSA) – Measurements Demo
  • QPSK Signal Demo: EVM, Eye-Pattern, Eye-Opening, PAR, Spectrum
  • Same as above with Additive Noise
  • I/Q Mixer Modulation Demo, Demonstration of the Image Rejection
  • OFDM Signal Spectrum, Time0Gated Spectrum of Sections of the Symbol
[/mpc_accordion_tab][/mpc_accordion]